When We Met Other Human Species

  • Published: 10 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: graines-chia.info/user/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 3 855

  • feldar
    feldar  36 minutes back

    If modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and they're children were able to reproduce, why do we consider Neanderthals a different species? Aren't we more like different breeds of dogs, than cats and tigers?

    • Tom Tonev
      Tom Tonev  44 minutes back

      He said Neanderthal alot!

      • Ancient Mysteries & Modern Innovations

        "An interbreeding event"? I think I've seen this one...

        • lightmeupper
          lightmeupper  1 hours back

          Dont forget humans have always killed off spicies wheather they where humans or animals

          • Cisco Lagunes
            Cisco Lagunes  1 hours back

            I hate how you say neanderthal but very interesting o.0

            • marc guidetti
              marc guidetti  2 hours back

              why haven't you mentioned the Denisovan remains found in North America in Los Angeles and San Diego in the past 4 years and in Peru and Chile
              They were in the America's thousands of years before the Native Americans arrived from Asia and before the Solutreans arrived from Europe

              • Autumn G
                Autumn G  4 hours back

                I like the Minecraft soundtrack playing in the back

                • Bryan Wint
                  Bryan Wint  4 hours back

                  Vegeta's voice: So that means Africans are the only true pure blooded Homosapions

                  • Ted Walker
                    Ted Walker  5 hours back

                    Where did the different species come from in the first place. Did they just suddenly pop up from nothing?

                    • James Souza
                      James Souza  5 hours back

                      Ya but where does Tony Ferguson fit into all this?

                      • Stretto Dardanelli
                        Stretto Dardanelli  5 hours back

                        Only humans with neanderthal admixture have successful space programs. Just sayin.

                      • Stretto Dardanelli
                        Stretto Dardanelli  5 hours back

                        Those who came out of Africa had no Neanderthal admixture, which we do... They weren't us!

                        • danturbo316
                          danturbo316  6 hours back

                          Let me guess, we took out the other hominids just like we're doing to many other animals today?

                          • PRKCHP CLSSC
                            PRKCHP CLSSC  6 hours back

                            Im gonna keep calling them dennahsovans, you cant stop me.

                            • Alex Block
                              Alex Block  6 hours back

                              Isn't the def of a species split that the animals can no longer mate?

                              • PudelsRule
                                PudelsRule  6 hours back

                                Thank you for this presentation - as our knowledge grows it makes one excited to learn more!
                                Signed, human happy to have 304 genetic variants that can be traced to the Neanderthals-
                                This is more than 89% of 23andMe participants to date.......no ooogh about it!

                                • Tree Rock Gaming
                                  Tree Rock Gaming  8 hours back

                                  Ju liar u said videos every Tuesday now it is Wednesday

                                  • wilkatis
                                    wilkatis  8 hours back

                                    Well, here's a question - isn't it somewhat a definition of separating 2 species that they can't interbreed between them, at least not without producing an infertile offspring?
                                    Humans & other hominids being able to interbreed almost sounds like them being the same "species", just different "races" so to say. Following that logic one could assume that migrating & thus "mixing" would end up unifying both "branches" into a single, somewhat "modified", one. If one "race" has more "attractive" quantities (lets say - human females generally preferring human males over other humanoid males for some reason) together with the numbers advantage (the smaller group always has less of a footprint than the larger group, you could say it gets diffused into it) this could lead to an eventual unifying into a single branch that continues with the others somewhat "going extinct" (even if a better term for that would be others getting "absorbed" into it).

                                    Well, that's just my nonsense thinking

                                    • marcelo rubio
                                      marcelo rubio  53 minutes back

                                      Breeding and producing fertile offspring is the biological species concept, which is not widely used today, because it ignores evolution as a continuous process affecting all populations. If a group of organisms comes from a distinct lineage, with a unique and relevant evolutionary history, it is understand that it deserves to be named and classified as a distinct species, even if it is possible that occasional interbreeding with others populations results in fertile offspring. Also, reproduction should not be used to unite different groups because it is a basal caracteristic, that can be shared or not among all descendants of a common ancestor, like there are examples of species A, B and C, in wich species A and B are more closely related but can't interbreed, but interbreed between A and C occurs.

                                  • ZenBrane
                                    ZenBrane  8 hours back

                                    It sounds like you're saying homonyms.

                                    • The open mind
                                      The open mind  8 hours back

                                      So we bred with people who were fitter physically to survive but they died out. Yea, that makes sense. (not) How come we made it that far if we were less fit than neanderthals? Plus different species cannot usually interbreed. Something tells me they don't really have a clue.

                                      • Mann Tau
                                        Mann Tau  3 hours back

                                        They aren’t a different species

                                    • Last One
                                      Last One  9 hours back

                                      Stole this name from Me

                                      • jeremy jozwik
                                        jeremy jozwik  11 hours back

                                        good video, thanks for posting!

                                        • Ea Wy
                                          Ea Wy  11 hours back

                                          We are the last monkey on the branch. We are poised to destroy mankind as we did before primitive man restarted the human race. The recycling reinvention of nuclear warfare will end the existence of the last monkey again. We are so busy inventing the invisible enemy that we don't realize where we are heading. 🙊

                                          • NYA5H
                                            NYA5H  11 hours back

                                            So, basically weak homo-sapiens of Africa were banished from local tribes for some nasty deeds. They wondered into cold Europe, lewd local Neanderthals there, took their staff and bounce. On their way to Asia they met Denisovans and screwed their wahmen too. After some fun in Asia they gone swimming to Japan, Pacific islands and Americas? What a journey, nice trip DNA :D

                                            • msd
                                              msd  11 hours back

                                              I thought "human" was the species? Do they mean other races?

                                              • Alex Ruddies
                                                Alex Ruddies  1 hours back

                                                @msd Because it's the current form of Homo Sapien. There were other subspecies of Homo Sapian in the past, such as Homo Sapian Idaltu.

                                              • msd
                                                msd  2 hours back

                                                @Alex Ruddies Why does "Sapian Sapian" double the name like that?

                                              • Alex Ruddies
                                                Alex Ruddies  3 hours back

                                                Well, all those in the genus Homo are human. Like Homo Sapien Sapien, Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthalis, Homo Habilis, etc...

                                            • rabblerouser
                                              rabblerouser  12 hours back

                                              I think sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases might have killed off the Neanderthals.

                                              • Nurmle
                                                Nurmle  12 hours back

                                                When humans meet other species don't we eat them? Haven't met a species I didn't like, as long as it's cooked right!

                                                • king peek
                                                  king peek  13 hours back

                                                  Our super power sex and persuasion

                                                  • Francesco Iapicca
                                                    Francesco Iapicca  14 hours back

                                                    probably some bard was around

                                                    • Lord Sesshomaru
                                                      Lord Sesshomaru  14 hours back

                                                      So many of us who are of European and Asian descent aren't 100% human? Cool.

                                                      • Alex Ruddies
                                                        Alex Ruddies  2 hours back

                                                        We are, we're still part of the genus Homo, so we're very much 100% human. 👍

                                                    • Philip EARC
                                                      Philip EARC  15 hours back

                                                      I hate it when this omegacuck comes up on autoplay.

                                                      • Tony John
                                                        Tony John  16 hours back

                                                        So, race is not just skin deep. Hm..

                                                        • Ficco Clivano Ikhsan
                                                          Ficco Clivano Ikhsan  16 hours back

                                                          Neanderthal, TOgether strong, Neanderthal with human, WEAK

                                                          • Kade Kim
                                                            Kade Kim  16 hours back

                                                            Thanks Hank, this video was surprisingly quite heartwarming

                                                            • DudeNamedDan
                                                              DudeNamedDan  20 hours back

                                                              This basically means certain prior hominid “species” were actually just people who had different skeletal structures than other people due to their dissimilar evolutionary biomes, right? Sooo... wouldn’t calling them separate species be kinda racist?

                                                              • A B
                                                                A B  21 hours back

                                                                I'm pretty sure i've bred with a couple neanderthal ladies after to many beers impaired my judgement.

                                                                • Michael Mantion
                                                                  Michael Mantion  21 hours back

                                                                  music ruined video.

                                                                  • Rush
                                                                    Rush  22 hours back

                                                                    Climate change and being assimalated by modern humans put them out

                                                                    • John Baldwin
                                                                      John Baldwin  22 hours back

                                                                      And what about the ones that are coined the 'Adamites?' The people that had elongated skulls and were much taller... these are not the other indigenous people that were doing head-boarding or binding method to achieve and mimic elongated stature of these lost and forgotten people?
                                                                      Surely, there were more other species other than what is mainly exclusive in the scientific community and academia?

                                                                      • Grover
                                                                        Grover  23 hours back

                                                                        1:50 How precisely shaded is that map? Neanderthals made it to Corsica, but not the shorter hop on to Sardinia? They didn't simply walk onto the Peloponnesus? I imagine those details could easily remain unknown, but I'd think the shading wouldn't be drawn with sharp edges in that case.

                                                                        • Truth Filter For YouTube
                                                                          Truth Filter For YouTube  23 hours back

                                                                          Anybody who is still buying this laughable "THEORY" is missing a few brain cells....and those still pushing it as if were even close to being a fact need to be in prison

                                                                          • TOME Julien
                                                                            TOME Julien  24 hours back

                                                                            Wait, Neanderthals gave us better adaptability against sunlight while the Sapiens came from central Africa, while the neanderthals had been living in Europe and central Asia for a while? This makes no sense, the Sapienss were the ones suffering more from intense sunlight all this time

                                                                            • TheGeorgianCitizen
                                                                              TheGeorgianCitizen  23 hours back

                                                                              It makes sense.
                                                                              Original Homo Sapiens had high concentrations of melanin, very useful for dealing with sunlight.
                                                                              wikipedia fragment
                                                                              In the human skin, melanogenesis is initiated by exposure to UV radiation, causing the skin to darken. Melanin is an effective absorbent of light; the pigment is able to dissipate over 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation.[2] Because of this property, melanin is thought to protect skin cells from UVB radiation damage, reducing the risk of folate depletion and dermal degradation, and it is considered that exposure to UV radiation is associated with increased risk of malignant melanoma, a cancer of melanocytes (melanin cells). Studies have shown a lower incidence for skin cancer in individuals with more concentrated melanin, i.e. darker skin tone.

                                                                              Neanderthals needed clearer skin to produce vitamin D because sunlight is less intense in Eurasia, specially at north.
                                                                              Wikipedia fragment
                                                                              The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation).

                                                                              Other Wikipedia fragment
                                                                              Dark-skinned people are less efficient at making vitamin D because melanin in the skin hinders vitamin D synthesis.

                                                                              They needed clearer skin to produce Vitamin D and needed more a skin repair gene to survive.

                                                                          • R.D Bergman
                                                                            R.D Bergman  24 hours back

                                                                            ...we murdered them.

                                                                            • TOME Julien
                                                                              TOME Julien  1 days back

                                                                              As much as I like the idea that the Neanderthals just interbred with the Sapiens, the part of the genome the eurasians get from them is so minor, borderline anecdotical, that I can't help but think the rest of the neanderthal extinction must have been from out-competing from the Sapiens and, let's be honest, a fair bit of straight up violence and war for territory

                                                                              • bill webb
                                                                                bill webb  1 days back

                                                                                Your so full of it dude!

                                                                                • moonglum101
                                                                                  moonglum101  1 days back

                                                                                  "an interbreeding event" is an interesting way to put it.

                                                                                  • Brian O Callaghan
                                                                                    Brian O Callaghan  1 days back

                                                                                    Homonin..? Is that a word?

                                                                                    • TheGeorgianCitizen
                                                                                      TheGeorgianCitizen  1 days back

                                                                                      Yes, at least for Encyclopedia Britannica and the scientific community.

                                                                                  • Rodrigo Wemans
                                                                                    Rodrigo Wemans  1 days back

                                                                                    At least 4 speceis of men down. Now climate change is finishing the job.